Trigonella foenum graeceum (Fenugreek) is one of the oldest cultivated plants and through the ages has found wide application as a food, a food additive and in the traditional medicine of every region in which it has been cultivated. Trigonella foenum graeceum part used as a medicine has generally been the seeds. The Ebers Papyrus of 1500 BC Egypt, lists a preparation of Trigonella foenum graeceum (Fenugreek) for the skin. The Greek physicians Hippocrates considered Trigonella foenum graeceum a valuable soothing herb while Dioscorides recommended Trigonella foenum graeceum (Fenugreek) for all types of gynecological problem. Trigonella foenum graeceum (Fenugreek) has been used since Biblical times to increase the production of milk for nursing. Traditional Chinese herbalists used Trigonella foenum graeceum for kidney problems and conditions affecting the male reproductive tract. Similarly, in Pakistan, India and elsewhere, the leaves, and both the ripe and unripe seeds of Trigonella foenum graeceum (Fenugreek) are used as vegetables and the ripe seed also, has numerous applications in their traditional medicine system. Trigonella foenum graeceum seeds also function as a preservative and are added to pickles, chutneys and other similar products. In modern food practice, Trigonella foenum graeceum seeds or the extract are used in bakery products, frozen dairy products, meat products, relish, condiments, candy, gravy sauces, gelatin puddings and in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Trigonella foenum graeceum (Fenugreek) is currently used as a source of the steroid diosgenin , one of its active constituents from which other steroids can be synthesized.
The name "Gokshura" signifies "cow hoof" from its resemblance of the cocci when adhering together in pairs. Tribulus terrestris is also called "Ikshugandha" for its aroma which resembles the sugarcane.The entire plant but especially the fruit and roots are used in Ayurvedic formulations for Urinary disorders, calculus formation, impotence and other UTI issues. Tribulus is non-irritant diuretic and urinary antiseptic. Tribulus terrestris is used in case of dysurea, urinary stone and incontinence of urine. Tribulus terrestris is used in various herbal formulas to treat headaches, eye problems such as itching, conjunctivitis and weak vision, and nervousness. Tribulus terrestris is also used to treat high blood pressure and rib pain. The hormone balancing effects of Tribulus terrestris for women makes this herb suitable for premenstrual syndrome and menopausal syndrome. Tribulus contains Sterols like betasitosterols or stigma. These substances protect the prostate from swelling and in combination with the X steroidal saponins, protect the prostate from cancer. Tribulus is used in case of impotence and spermaturia as it helps to increase the level of the luteinizing hormone in the body and improved the synthesis of the testicular male sex hormone. So it is being aphrodisiac in nature. Traditionally use of Tribulus is found to be effective in case of gout.
Tylophora asthmatica leaves and roots have emetic, cathartic, laxative, expectorant, diaphoretic and purgative properties. Tylophora asthmatica has also been used for the treatment of allergies, cold, dysentery, hay fever and arthritis. Tylophora asthmatica has reputation as an alterative and as a blood purifier, often used in rheumatism and syphilitic rheumatism. Tylophora asthmatica Root or leaf powder is used in diarrhoea, dysentery and intermittent fever. Dried leaves are emetic diaphoretic and expectorant. Tylophora asthmatica is regarded as one of the best indigenous substitute for ipecacuanha. Tylophora asthmatica is traditionally used as a folk remedy in certain regions of India for the treatment of bronchial asthma , inflammation , bronchitis, allergies, rheumatism and dermatitis. Tylophora asthmatica also seems to be a good remedy in traditional medicine as anti-psoriasis, seborrheic, anaphylactic, leucopenia and as an inhibitor of the Schultz-Dale reaction.
Tinosphora cordifolia root, stem, leaves and sattva (starch) of guduci are used for medicinal purpose, externally; the medicated oil of the plant is effectively used to reduce the pain and oedema, in gout and skin diseases. In filariasis, the paste of Tinosphora cordifolia (guduci), karuka, sunthi, devadara and vidanga works well when applied externally. Internally, Tinosphora cordifolia (guduci) is one of the most effective rasayanas- rejuvenatives. Tinosphora cordifolia works well on all the seven dhatus tissues and keeps the systems in balance. The rasayana accords longevity, enhances memory, improves health, and bestows youth, betters complexion, voice, energy and luster of the skin. In the diseases due to vata dosa it is given with ghrta, in pitta dosa with sugar and kapha dosa with honey. Tinosphora cordifolia is immensely helpful in the digestive ailments like hyperacidity, colitis, worm infestations, and loss of appetite, abdominal pain, excessive thirst, vomiting and liver disorders like hepatitis. Tinosphora cordifolia (Guduci) is one of the best bitter tonics useful in fevers especially of pitta origin. Tinosphora cordifolia alleviates bodyheat, thirst, burning sensation to the skin and vomiting if any, due to pitta. In tubercular fever, it combines well with ativisa for decoction. The juices of Tinosphora cordifolia (guduci), amalaki and haridra act synergistically in urinary problems. In hepatitis, the fresh juice of guduci given with rock candy, hastens the recovery. Tinosphora cordifolia particularly helps in diseases like raktapitta, anaemia, cardiac debility, diabetes, sexual debility and splenic disorders, due to vitiation of pitta. Tinosphora cordifolia (Guduci) is the drug of choice amongst all the remedies in treating gout vatarakta. The decoction of guduci and sunthi is a very effective combination for the treatment of gout and rheumatic disorders. Its medicinal ghee with kantakari is beneficial in cough Guduci juice works well with cow’s milk or lodhra in leucorrhea and with cumin seeds in burning sensation due to pitta. The starch (sattva) of Tinosphora cordifolia (guduci) is traditionally used as a household remedy, for chronic fever, to alleviate it as well as to reduce burning sensation and to increase the energy and appetite. Tinosphora cordifolia is beneficial in tuberculosis and general debility also. Guduci is recommended in the skin diseases and its decoction with nimba and vasa effectively relieves the itching and oozing. Tinosphora cordifolia also works well in the cutaneous rashes and condylomata, in the secondary stage of syphilis. Tinosphora cordifolia (Guduci) should be always used fresh for good results and the twiner which grows on nimba tree is said to have better results.
The fruits of Terminalia belerica (bibhitaka) are used for the medicinal purpose. It is used both, internally as well as externally. Terminalia belerica seed oil or the paste of its fruit is applied externally on the swollen and painful parts. In skin diseases and premature graying of hair, Terminalia belerica seed oil is applied with excellent results. The respiratory ailments, especially due to kapha, like cough, cold, hoarseness of voice and asthma, respond well with chewing the baked pieces of Terminalia belerica. It works well as a mucolytic in such conditions. Terminalia belerica powder is beneficial in wound dressing to arrest the bleeding, if any. The medicated hair oil of Terminalia belerica (bibhitaka) fruit and kernel alleviates the pain, burning sensation and boosts the hair growth and imparts black colour to them. The paste of its Terminalia belerica is applied on the eyelids in conjunctivitis. Terminalia belerica (bibhitaka) is of special benefit in treating patha disorders. The raw fruit is laxative, wheras the ripened fruit is astringent and antidiarrhoeal. Terminalia belerica (Bibhitaka) reconciles the digestive functions and helps alleviation loss of appetite, flatulence, thirst, piles and worms. In treating piles, the raw fruit arrests the bleeding and accords a laxative action. Whereas, in diarrhea and dysentery the ripened fruit allocates an astringent and anti-diarrhoeal actions. The decotion of its kernel is the panacea for excessive thirst, vomiting and ailments of kapha and vata. Terminalia belerica (Bibhitaka) is one of the commonly incorporated ingredients in anti-cough syrups. Terminalia belerica alleviates cough, relieves the blocked phlegm, controls the bleeding in the sputum (heamoptysis) and eases the bronchospasms. In such conditions, the powder of fruit works well, with honey. The decoction of Terminalia belerica is given alongwith rock candy (1:2) Om laja diseases/ the lerme; os ised as am aphrodisiac in sexual debility. Terminalia belerica also helps inducing deep sleep and alleviates pain in vata diseases. One of the best and widely used preparations of bibhitika is triphala curna. As mentioned above, Terminalia belerica contains rejuvenating agents, hence used to prevent ageing and impart longevity. Terminalia belerica also boosts the immunity, enhances the body resistance against the disease and improves mental faculties. Terminalia belerica endows beneficial effects on all seven dhatus. Terminalia belerica is one of the ingredient of triphala. In day to day life, triphala is used as a laxative and it is used externally for hair wash also.
Terminalia chebula (haritaki) is used both, internally as well as externally. Externally, the paste applied effectively reduces the swelling, hastens the healing and cleanses the wounds and ulcers. The paste is applied on the eyelids in conjunctivitis for relier. The gargles with its decoction bestow excellent results in stomatitis and diseases of the throat. The decoction or its cream is salutary in cleansing the chronic wounds and from better healing, respectively. Terminalia chebula (Triphala), one of its famous preparations, can be used externally for hair wash, for brushing the teeth in pyorrhea or bleeding gums and its decoction for washing the chronic, non-healing wounds and ulcers. Internally, Terminalia chebula (haritaki) is used in a vast range of diseases. The usage of Terminalia chebula( haritaki) is recommended in kapha diseases with rock salt, in pitta diseases with sugar and in vata diseases with the ghee. There is a specific mention of the anupana (substance that serves as a medium for the herbs to be taken with) with which karitaki should be combined, with reference to the season. In varsa ritu (July-August), it should be taken with rock salt, in sarad ritu (September-October) with sugar, in hemanta ritu (November- December) with sunthi, in sisira ritu (Janaury-February) with pippali, in vasanta rtu (March-April) with honey and in grisma ritu (May-June) with jaggery. Says Vag- bhata, when Terminalia chebula (haritaki) powder fried in ghee regularly consumed, with sufficient ghee in food, promotes longevity and boosts energy. There are three varieties of haritaki fruits, as per their stages, available in the market, namely, balaharitaki – raw fruit, chambhari or rangari haritaki – half ripened fruit and survari – fully ripened fruit. Ayurvedic pharmacognosy has described 7 varietyes of haritaki fruits viz.vijaya, rohini, putana, amrta, abhaya, jivanti and cetaki. Common gastrointestinal ailments, tumours, ascites, piles, enlargement of liver-spleen, worms, colitis respond very well with Terminalia chebula (haritaki). In gout its powder works well with jaggery. Its combination with sunthi powder is given with hot water to alleviate asthma and hiccup. Hyperacidity is curbed with haritaki powder, black raisins and sugar. For purgation, triphala powder is recommended with water. The mixture of triphala powder and haridra is a well known adjunct in diabetes. Bronchospasm is mitigated effectively, with the combination of haritaki and bibhitaka powders, with honey. In abdominal pain due to flatulence, it is given with jaggery and ghee. Diseases of the eye, like conjunctivitis respond well when eye wash of triphala decoction is given, with internal medicament of triphala powder with ghee and honey. The most popular combination of haritaki, musta, sunthi and jaggery is an effective panacea for diarrhea, dysentery, flatulence etc. Haritaki siddha ghrta is beneficial in chronic fever. The decoction of Terminalia chebula (haritaki) or triphala is given alongwith honey in hepatitis, with great bebefit. Terminalia chebula (Haritaki) powder with honey and ghee is an effective remedy for anaemia. In oozing skin lesions haritaki is salubrious. In obesity, its decoction with honey reduces the excessive body fats. Terminalia chebula (Haritaki) is beneficial for the eyes; it improves memory and is salutary in dysuria and urinary stones. Terminalia chebula (Haritaki) is one of the best rejuvenatives.